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QuestionModule 8 final exam1. Question : Many bargaining books are tied to __________ so that answers to “what if” questions can be quickly calculated. annual reportsbenchmarksspreadsheetsindustry averagesQuestion 2. Question : Which of the following is a major purpose of a bargaining convention? To announce the outcome of contract negotiationsTo raise grassroots issues for inclusion in the bargaining agendaTo make the management publicly commit itself to certain concessionsTo create a face-saving exit strategy for the union leadershipQuestion 3. Question : __________ is an example of integrative bargaining in which the parties approach the negotiation with the idea that when it is concluded, both sides will have benefited. Distributive bargainingMutual-gains bargainingIntraorganizational bargainingAttitudinal structuringQuestion 4. Question : __________ occurs when the parties disagree on an issue and when its settlement will involve a loss for one party and a gain for the other. Integrative bargainingMutual-gains bargainingDistributive bargainingAttitudinal structuringQuestion 5. Question : Which of the following observations is true concerning distributive bargaining? It occurs when employers and unions accommodate each other’s needs without cost. It frequently involves employers’ desires to improve flexibility and unions’ desires for increased job security. It means some resource is in fixed supply, and one party’s gain of that resource is the other party’s loss. It occurs when employers and unions accommodate each other’s needs through simultaneous gains. Question 6. Question : Local unions hold __________ before contract negotiations to help determine local members’ commitment to bargaining issues in case a strike is called. revision meetingscounselsmembership meetingsbargaining conventionsQuestion 7. Question : Why is bargaining required? Because it has historically been a strict legal requirementBecause there are no trade-offs involved in the processBecause both the parties are facing a win-win situationBecause the parties have a conflict of interest on issues that jointly affect themQuestion 8. Question : Which of the following bargaining units is associated with a high propensity to strike? SouthernUrbanFemale-dominatedYounger membersQuestion 9. Question : Which type of strike involves unauthorized work stoppage during the contract? EconomicWildcatSympathyUnfair labor practiceQuestion 10. Question : Which of the following observations concerning multiple-use site picketing is true? It is easiest to picket a primary employer without disrupting secondary businesses. The struck employer has usually leased the site from another company that owns the multiple-use site. It is easy to legally picket a multiple-use site. The Supreme Court has held that passive picketing to inform the public about a dispute can interfere with other multiple-use sites. Question 11. Question : The propensities to strike are negatively related to __________. family employment stabilityblue-collar backgroundintegrative bargaining viewsthe labor relations climateQuestion 12. Question : A(n) __________strike is called after a contract expires and usually after there is an impasse to pressure the employer to settle on the union’s terms. economicwildcatsympathyunfair labor practiceQuestion 13. Question : Which of the following is not a result of a shutdown? Highly negative consequences for future labor relationsLost production revenuesCompetitors gearing up to take over the lost productionPossible reduction in the struck company’s market shareQuestion 14. Question : Relatively speaking, in __________ industries, unionized worker quality is lower than that of their nonunion counterparts. manufacturingmedicalagriculturalserviceQuestion 15. Question : More recently, companies are likely to have implemented __________ pay programs to support new organizational structures stressing team designs. experience-basedskill-basedgroup achievements-basedprofit-sharingQuestion 16. Question : Large nonunion firms generally have formalized __________, with clearly communicated and unambiguous promotion criteria emphasizing seniority, skills, as well as development opportunities. career-growth patternspay-increase scalesjob-posting systemsgrievance-addressing systemsQuestion 17. Question : After unionization, employers reduce their historical levels of investment in: newly unionized facilities. new technologies. hiring and retention of employees. employee benefits. Question 18. Question : A study tracking organizing success after passage of the __________ found organized firms had about a 20 percent lower rate of return to shareholders than firms remaining nonunion. McCarran-Ferguson ActWagner ActRailway Labor ActTaft-Hartley ActQuestion 19. Question : Propensities to strike were seen to be positively related to __________. strike hardshipeducationsenioritypay rateQuestion 20. Question : If unionization leads to lower shareholder returns, other things being equal, top managers could be expected to try to __________ in their firms, particularly if a substantial proportion of their compensation is in the form of stock options. increase worker motivationdecrease high absenteeismreduce unionizationintroduce stock split optionQuestion 21. Question : Cost-reduction strategies are associated with conflict and __________. the incidence of absenteeismthe use of formal grievance procedurescollective bargaininginformal solution of problemsQuestion 22. Question : According to a study, __________ programs produced better results than programs run only by management, which were not better than having no program. collaborativecooperativeadversarialnot-for-profitQuestion 23. Question : The organizational restructuring that began in the 1980s has been increasingly __________. hierarchy-orientedteam-orientedemployer-orientedindividual-orientedQuestion 24. Question : Which of the following has a negative effect on performance? Extensive collaboration between management and laborImplementing product differentiationAcquiring new nonunion plantsDeunionizing activity in any existing plant. Question 25. Question : Which of the following is associated with reduced productivity gains? Top union leader participationTechnology changesLarger proportion of women in the workforceSubcontractingQuestion 26. Question : Which of the following is true about gainsharing plans? The adoption of gainsharing plans is often followed by the suspension of productivity-related bonuses for employees. Gainsharing plans tie periodic bonuses to labor productivity improvements. The adoption of gainsharing plans is associated with greater ability and inclination of a firm to design frequent restructuring programs. The employer is the actual and sole beneficiary of gainsharing plans. Question 27. Question : Employee involvement (EI) programs have three components: improving climate, generating commitment, and __________. diversifying skillscomplying with management directivesgenerating profitimplementing changeQuestion 28. Question : __________ cover(s) disputes that occur over which job classification is entitled to perform certain work. IncentivesWork assignmentDisciplineWorking conditionsQuestion 29. Question : When a grievance is unresolved even after presenting it to the industrial representative, the parties submit the dispute to a(n) __________ who hears evidence from both sides and renders an award. international union representativearbitratormediatorunion stewardQuestion 30. Question : __________ is a form of subcontracting. Work assignmentOutsourcingArbitrationFractional bargainingQuestion 31. Question : Which is the area in which employees might be justified in unilaterally refusing a work assignment they have a valid reason to believe could lead to injury? Work schedulesWorking conditionsIndividual personnel assignmentsProduction standardsQuestion 32. Question : Which of the following is true of grievance mediation? It typically allows the parties to uncover and deal with the real reason for the conflict. It tends to increase the likelihood of settlements at lower levels. It tends to shift the focus from a problem-solving mode toward a “rights” (who wins) orientation. It is typically used for discharge grievances and those involving financial claims of more than $5, 000. Question 33. Question : Satisfaction with outcomes of the grievance procedure was negatively related to __________. issue importanceunion success ratesize of the unitresolution rateQuestion 34. Question : __________ grievances most often concern promotions, layoffs, transfers, and shift assignments. DisciplineIncentive basedWorking conditionPersonnel assignmentQuestion 35. Question : Which of the following observations concerning the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) is true? The arbitrators whose names appear in the roster of FMCS are FMCS employees. FMCS arbitrators are private practitioners. FMCS provides reporting or facilities assistance. Unlike the AAA, FMCS does not provide panels. Question 36. Question : In arbitration cases, authoritarian approaches are more often applied for which of the following? AbsenteeismIncompetenceDishonestyAlcohol useQuestion 37. Question : Which form of evidence is information specifically tying a person to a situation? Circumstantial evidenceDirect evidenceExternal evidenceSubjective evidenceQuestion 38. Question : Rules of evidence in arbitration are more __________ than those in courts of law. discretionaryelectiveliberalbindingQuestion 39. Question : Which of the following facilitates the entry of new arbitrators because relatively simple and straightforward cases are generally handled in this way? Expedited arbitrationMediationFormal arbitrationExpert determinationQuestion 40. Question : Which of the following situations consolidates the relevance of an evidence? If the evidence is based on hearsayIf the evidence addresses a separate issue than that which is pertinentIf the evidence is based on unverifiable factsIf the evidence is materialQuestion 41. Question : What are the three basic protections for arbitration laid down by the Supreme Court in the Steelworkers’ trilogy? Question 42. Question : Explain decertifications, their implications, and their influence. Question 43. Question : What are area-wide labor-management committees (AWLMCs)? List their major activities. What is the primary assumption behind the creation of AWLMCs? Question 44. Question : What is a bargaining book?
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